*Varices – distended veins that are
associated with cirrhosis and portal
*Mallory-Weiss tear (after repeated incidences of vomiting)
_Gastric and/or duodenal varices - also associated with cirrhosis and portal hypertension
_Drugs such as warfarin and excessive alcohol intake
_Bleeding disorders (mainly congenital)
_Angiodysplasia (bleeding caused by continuous thining of blood vessel that line the GIT that result in their bursting).
_Dieulafoy's lesion (is characterized by a large tortuous arteriole mainly submucosal of the stomach. It erodes and bleeds easily).
_Aortic-enteric fistula (occurs mainly after aortic graft)