## Basic introduction

  • Septicemia is a serious illness wherein a patient develops symptoms due to the presence of bacteria (bacteremia) or their toxins in the blood
  • It is also known as blood poisoning or bacteremia with sepsis
  • Septicemia may occur before or at the same time as infections
  • It should be suspected in patients with fever without any localized sign

## Possible causes

  • Staphylococcus
  • Meningococcus
  • Salmonella group

## Statistics

  • The prevalence of Community-Acquired bacteremia in children below 13yrs in Kilifi County in Kenya was 6.6% in 2006b

## Population at the risk of septicemia

  • Immunocompromised people
  • Babies
  • Children
  • Elderly
  • Chronic illness such as diabetes, hepatic disorder, and renal failure
  • Surgery
  • Burns
  • High fever
  • Chills
  • Confusion
  • Hypothermia
  • Malaise
  • Mental confusion
  • Petechiae and ecchymosis (Red spots on the skin)
  • Shock
  • Tachycardia
  • Tachypnea
  • Hyperglycemia without any history of diabetes mellitus
  • Leukocytosis or paradoxically leukopenia
  • Hypotension
  • Clinical review
  • Blood culture
  • Urinalysis
  • BS for malaria
  • Blood gases
  • Full Blood Count (FBC)

## Complications of Septicemia

  • Adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
  • Adrenal collapse (in case of meningococci)
  • Septic shock
  • Death
  • Bacteremia
  • Vaccination

1. Munford RS, Suffredini AF. Sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock. In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, eds. Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 7th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier; 2009: chap 70.

2. Were, T., Davenport, G. C., Hittner, J. B., Ouma, C., Vulule, J. M., Ong'echa, J. M., & Perkins, D. J. (2011). Bacteremia in Kenyan children presenting with malaria. Journal of clinical microbiology, 49(2), 671-676.

3. Kenyan Ministry of Health. Clinical guidelines for management and referral of common conditions at levels 4-6. Hospitals. 2009; 3:259-261.

4. Ministry of Health, Kenya. Kenya Essential Medicine List (2016).

  • Antibiotics

_Inj Benzyl penicillin  PLUS gentamycin or chloramphenicol


_Cloxacillin or flucloxacillin PLUS gentamycin or chloramphenicol in case of suspected Staphylococcus


_Ceftazidime or ceftriaxone if the above treatment is not responsive after 2-3 days

  • IV fluids
  • Oxygen
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