- It is characterized by vaginal bleeding with the membranes showing or not showing gross rupturing, the cervix being dilated and abortion being almost certain.
- The conception products and intracervical contents are still present at the time of examination
- Once cervical dilatation occurs, threatened abortion progresses to an inevitable miscarriage.
- Once conception products and intracervical contents have passed through the cervical os incomplete abortion occurs. This will eventually progress to a complete abortion.
- Bloody vaginal discharge
- Lower back pain
- Abdominal cramping /pain.
- Cervix open / dilated
- Pregnancy test
- Ultrasound (transvaginal pelvic ultrasonography being more accurate than transabdominal ultrasound) to answer the following questions - is the embryo still there? Is the embryo still alive? Is there a possibility of ectopic pregnancy? Is there a “Blighted ovum”? Is there a hydatidiform mole? Is there any other defect?
- Complete Blood Count
- Blood typing and Rh testing
- Serum hCG
- Serum progesterone (rarely done)
- Test for malaria in malaria - endemic area.
- Urinalysis and microscopy
- Test for syphilis
- Benign hydatidiform mole
- Blighted ovum
- Cervical cancer
- Cervical ectopic pregnancy
- Dysfunctional uterine bleeding
- Incompetent cervix
- Tubal ectopic pregnancy
- Adnexal Tumors
- Inf Oxytocin 20IU in 500 mL normal saline over 4hrs (to facilitate expulsion of products of conception, POCs). OR
- Misoprostol 600µg vaginally (if gestation is > 14 wks)
- Evacuation in case some products of conception (POCs) still remain after the above