Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers, VHF

Notes

A]. General notes on VHFs

  • VHFs generally refer to severe illnesses that have RNA viral aetiology and accompanied by bleeding.
  • Classification of VHF viruses;

Family

Viruses

Arenaviridae

_Lassa virus*#

_Lujo virus#

­_Machupo virus#

_ Sabiá virus#

_Guanarito virus#

Bunyaviridae

_Rift Valley Fever virus* + (Phlebovirus genus)

_Hantavirus#

_Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (Nairovirus genus)*

_Garissa virus (Orthobunyavirus genus)

_Ilesha virus (Orthobunyavirus genus)

Filoviridae

_Ebola virus*--

_Marburg virus*--

Flaviviridae

_Dengue*+

_Yellow fever (YF)*+

_Tick-borne encephalitis group (Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus and Kyasanur Forest disease virus.)

*VHF viruses that mainly found in Africa

+Usual source of human infection - mosquitoes

# ­usual source of human infection -  rodents

-- usual source of human infection -fruit bat

  • Most of the agents that cause VHF are arboviruses and their transmission to humans results from arthropods’ bite.
  • Arboviruses include: African swine fever virus, Dengue virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, Rift Valley fever virus, Tick-borne encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, Yellow fever virus and Zika virus.
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