Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers, VHF


A]. General notes on VHFs

  • VHFs generally refer to severe illnesses that have RNA viral aetiology and accompanied by bleeding.
  • Classification of VHF viruses;




_Lassa virus*#

_Lujo virus#

­_Machupo virus#

_ Sabiá virus#

_Guanarito virus#


_Rift Valley Fever virus* + (Phlebovirus genus)


_Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (Nairovirus genus)*

_Garissa virus (Orthobunyavirus genus)

_Ilesha virus (Orthobunyavirus genus)


_Ebola virus*--

_Marburg virus*--



_Yellow fever (YF)*+

_Tick-borne encephalitis group (Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus and Kyasanur Forest disease virus.)

*VHF viruses that mainly found in Africa

+Usual source of human infection - mosquitoes

# ­usual source of human infection -  rodents

-- usual source of human infection -fruit bat

  • Most of the agents that cause VHF are arboviruses and their transmission to humans results from arthropods’ bite.
  • Arboviruses include: African swine fever virus, Dengue virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, Rift Valley fever virus, Tick-borne encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, Yellow fever virus and Zika virus.
Drug Index 2.0 is here
Our new update features a more powerful search feature and easier login. Having any issues? Contact us today. Contact Us