C]. Rift Valley fever

  • RVF virus belongs to the genus Phlebovirus and the family
  • RVF is a zoonotic disease that affects mainly animals and to a lesser extent humans. Sheep are more susceptible than cattle or camels.
  • It is primarily found in sub-Saharan and North Africa.
  • Epidemics have been reported in Kenya where it was discovered in the Rift Valley in 1931.
  • cubation period-2 to 6 days; In 1997 outbreak in Kenya 89,000 casess were reported in animals with 478 deaths and 160,000 cases in human with 450 deaths; in 2006 - 2007 the outbreak that affected Sudan, Kenya, Somalia, and Tanzania led to over 900 human deaths; case fatality ≤ 1%; mortality rate among the sheep is 10% with that of their lambs being 90% and abortion rate of pregnant ewes being almost 100%.
  1. Transmission
  • Contact with the blood or tissues of infected animals
  • Unpasteurized milk of infected animals.
  • Bites of infected mosquitoes (mainly Aedes mosquito).
  • Some are asymptomatic
  • Mild form of the RVF;

_Symptoms that can be confused with malaria that include fever, headache, joint pain, myalgia, nausea and vomiting

_Symptoms that can be confused with meningitis that include stiffness of the neck and detectable symptoms.

_Flu-like symptoms

  • Severe form of RVF;

_Ocular disease (characterized by blurred or reduced vision)


_Haemorrhagic fever (characterized by by liver disorder that leads to jaundice; vomiting of blood, bleeding from the nose, skin, GIT and gum; mennorhagia

  • Immunoassay (IgM based ELISA and KEMRI Immunoline Rapid test kit)
  • Detection of the live virus
  • PCR
  • Most cases are mild and they require no treatment.
  • No specific treatment is available; it is only supportive.
  • Inactivated vaccine (for the exposed individuals)
  • Animal vaccination before the outbreak is eff
  • Statistics: Inective (one live vaccine provides live long immunity.
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