Marburg virus disease (MVD)
- MVD (family Filoviridae) is caused by two marburgviruses Marburg virus and Ravn virus.
- The disease was first discovered in Marburg, Germany, in 1967. It was contracted from the imported African green monkeys from Uganda.
- The clinical symptoms of MVD are very similar to those of Ebola virus disease.
- Statistics: Incubation period- 2 to 21 days; occurrence of death – day 8 to 16; fatality rate – up to 100%.
- Outbreak history: 2004 – 2005 in Angola (the worst ever outbreak in history) with 252 cases and 227 deaths (90%); 1998 – 2000 in Democratic Republic of Congo with 154 cases and 128 deaths (83%); 1980 & 1987 in Kenya 5 cases and 2 deaths (40%).
- The first human infection occurs through contact with an infected animal e.g. fruit bat and primate. This is followed by the person-to-person transmissions.
- Severe fever
- Red eyes
- Joint pain
- Sore throat
- Expressionless facies
- Hepatic and renal disorders
- External and internal hemorrhage
- Pulmonary edema
- Death is caused by multiple organ dysfunction syndrome as a result of fluid redistribution, hypotension, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and focal tissue necroses.
- ELISA - for antigens or for IgM and IgG antibodies
- Cell & culture viral isolation
- General tests – Full blood counts, urea, pH, BUN and liver tests.
- Typhoid fever
- Supportive treatment that include rehydration
- MVD survivors and their sexual partners should use condom or abstain from sex until their semen has twice tested negative.
- Non-inactivated samples to be tested under maximum biological containment conditions.