Yellow fever, YF

Notes
  • YF virus belongs to the genus Flavivirus and the family
  • It is primarily found in tropical areas of Africa, Central America and South America.
  • Statistics: Population in YF endemic area - 600 milllion; global cases of YF = 200,000; global annual mortality – 30,000; proportion of patients who enter into toxic phase of the disease 15%; overall fatality rate - 3 to 7.5%; fatality in the toxic phase - 20 to 50% or more; incubation period - 3 to 6 days.
  • It is transmitted by Aedes or Haemogogus
Symptoms
  • Some are asymptomatic
  • Mild form of the YF;

_Symptoms that can be confused with malaria that include fever, chills, headache, joint pain, myalgia, nausea and vomiting (This symptoms subsides to a great extent after 5 days)

  • Toxic phase of YF;

_Recurrent fever

_Haemorrhagic fever (characterized by by liver disorder that leads to jaundice, hence the name “Yellow fever”); vomiting of blood, bleeding from the nose, skin, GIT and gum; mennorhagia

Diagnosis
  • Clinical review (especially history)
  • PCR
  • Viral isolation and growth in cell culture containing blood plasma (results within 1-4 wks)
  • ELISA for IgM and IgG (cross-reaction with antibodies for flaviviruses such as dengue virus).
  • KEMRI Rapid test kit
Differential
  • Ebola
  • Marburg
  • Malaria
  • Typhoid
  • Rift Valley fever
  • Shigellosis
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