Adenovirus infections

Notes

## Basic introduction

  • Adenovirus (ADV) is a non-enveloped icosahedral DNA virus that belongs to the family Adenoviridae and genus Mast adenovirus
  • ADV is generally resistant to the common disinfectants such as alcohol and chlorhexidine
  • ADV can be an endemic, epidemic and a sporadic infection.
  • ADV infection rarely spreads beyond the regional lymph node unless the patient is immunocompromised

## Statistics

  • ADV causes about 2% of respiratory illness in adults and 3-5% of the same in children

## Transmission

  • Ingestion of food
  • Fecal-oral transmission
  • Droplet infection
  • Contact/hand to eye
  • Sexually transmitted
  • Fomites

## Risk factors

  • Immunocompromised status
  • Malnutrition in children below 2 years
  • Military service
  • Transplant patients
Symptoms
  • In most cases the disease is self-limiting, lasting for about 2 weeks
  • Febrile common cold
  • URTIs
  • Gastroenteritis
  • Conjunctivitis
  • Pharyngitis
  • Tonsillitis
Diagnosis
  • Clinical review
  • PCR
  • Culture in HeLA, HEK cell lines
  • ELISA
Differential
  • Bronchitis
  • Community-Acquired Pneumonia
  • Gastroenteritis
  • Influenza
  • Keratitis (bacterial or viral)
  • Pharyngitis (bacterial or viral)
  • Pneumonia (bacterial or viral)
  • URTIs
  • Meningitis/encephalitis
Prevention
  • Chlorination of pools
  • Personal hygiene
  • Hand washing
Reference

a. Madeley, C. R. (1987). Novel Diarrhoea Viruses. Journal of clinical pathology, 40(12), 1490-1490.

Management
  • Usually self-limiting
  • Cough suppressants or expectorants when required
  • Paracetamol [avoid aspirin]
  • Topical corticosteroids for conjunctivitis.
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