Statistics: Global distribution of EC - 80 - 85% in developing country; males to females ratio of EC- 15 to 1; the most affected age 65 to 74 yrs.
♦Grade 0: Normal swallowing
♦Grade 1: Difficulty with solids
♦Grade 2: Difficulty with semi solids
♦Grade 3: Difficulty with liquids
♦Grade 4: Total dysphagia
Preoperative radiotherapy is recommended for stages II and III to shrink tumour and render it amenable to resection
♦In a low-resource limited settings the standard regimen is a combination of 5FU and cisplatin with or without radiotherapy
♦When resources are available, a platinum compound such as cisplatin and a taxane such as paclitaxel or docetaxel can be used.
♦Other drugs that can be used include: vinblastine, epirubicin, interferon alpha-2a, irinotecan and vinorelbine.